In Nigeria, How To Begin A Yam Farming Business

Yam Farming Business:Yam is said to have come from the Caribbean, Asia, and Africa. Some Africans frequently refer to it as “nyami,” from which the word “yam” was derived. The terms “yam” and “potato” are frequently used interchangeably in several regions of the world, and the fact that some people still call sweet potatoes yams” is frequently confusing.

A staple cuisine in Africa is yam.

Yam is grown for both personal consumption (subsistence farming) and commercial production in Nigeria, where it is regarded as a very essential food item. The majority of families have storage barns and areas in their gardens where yams can be planted. Yam can be cooked in a variety of ways and eaten as porridge, roasted, or even as a complement to other cuisines.

Many families in Nigeria use yams as their main source of food, making yam farming a tremendously valuable industry, yet most people are unaware of this. Even though the industry seems time-consuming, investing in yam farming wouldn’t be a complete waste of time if you do it correctly and at the appropriate moment.

In Nigeria, How To Begin A Yam Farming Business
In Nigeria How To Begin A Yam Farming Business

Yam cultivation is a very significant business to go into due to Nigeria’s growing population and the necessity to secure food security. Furthermore, because this firm does not fall under the umbrella of their “white-collar industry,” many people have ignored it.

Nigeria is reputed to have the greatest yam cultivation rates worldwide, whereas Ghana has the highest yam export rates. As a result, Nigerian farmer are not cultivating enough in Nigeria to satisfy the local consumers and have sufficient yam products for exports.

This article will elaborate on ‘HOW TO START A YAM FARMING BUSINESS IN NIGERIA. I will guide you on the step-by-step process to follow if you intend to start a yam business in Nigeria.

How To Start Yam Farming Business In Nigeria

Yam is a root and tuber crop, and it is mostly cultivated in West Africa. West Africa contributes to about 90% of the world yam production, and Nigeria is responsible for about 68% of the total production. Yam belongs to the family Discorecoceae, and it has different varieties or cultivars which include:

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Below are step by step procedures for starting a yam farming business in Nigeria

1. Land Acquisition

The first step in the yam farming business is the acquisition of land. Commercial farming requires a lot of land, and cultivating yam for monumental commercial purposes means you need to have a large hectare of land for use. However, depending on your budget, get well-drained land that is not waterlogged.

The size should be sufficient for the quantity of yam you intend to cultivate and proper plant spacing. Lands can either be bought, rented, or leased. Ensure to acquire written agreements for the land to avoid future problems. Lands should also be free from cattle herders and should be well secured to prevent theft.

2. Land Preparation

After the land acquisition, the next step is land preparation. For small-scale farming, land preparation requires hoes and cutlass to clear the bushes and weeds. For commercial farms, this stage is done mechanically using the ploughs (plows) and harrows.

Clearing the bushes is best done during the dry season. This will allow the weeds to dry up with the soil, which will form organic manure. The process of doing this is what is referred to as mulching.

This will help to improve soil moisture and make more favorable conditions for plant growth. Heaps and ridge beds should be prepared after the land is cleared. The ridges should be made while considering the land’s contour to avoid erosion.

In Nigeria, How To Begin A Yam Farming Business
In Nigeria How To Begin A Yam Farming Business

3. Yam Sett Preparation

Setts are referred to as yam seeds that have been cut for planting. They are whole tubers that are being cut into different sizes. The yam setts should be taken from healthy and disease-free tubers, and as a rule, the bigger setts should be used because it tends to yield better yam sizes on harvest, but the setts should not be made to be too big to avoid waste of tuber.

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Applying fungicide, insecticides, and ash to the yam seeds prepares the yam sett. To stop germs from harming the yam when it is planted, this is being done. The soil is also made alkaline by the ash. Sett preparation should be completed right before the rainy season.

4. Yam Sett Planting

The greatest time to plant yam is when it is raining. But between March and April is when the majority of yam types are planted. Up to 15,000 to 20,000 setts can be found on one hectare of ground. While the late planting season occurs between March and April, the early planting season occurs between October and November.

The recommended distance between rows and stands for commercial yam cultivation is 1 m and 1 m, respectively. Make sure you have enough space to fit the setts you’ll be planting. Large tubers, as well as the plants’ thriving vines, require a lot of space to flourish.

5. Manure addition, staking, and weeding

The yam sett must first be planted before moving on to this. To prevent undesirable plants from competing for nutrients with the yam seedling, weeding must be done periodically on the farm. Depending on growth, weeding can be done three to four times. Make sure to cover exposed tubers when weeding.

Using bamboo sticks or ropes, staking is accomplished. This is done to make sure the yam receives enough sunshine, which is crucial for its growth. To ensure the yam tubers’ rapid growth, manure is also being added at this time. Manure for the cultivation of yams can be made from compost and cow dung.

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6.Harvesting and sales,

When the yam reaches maturity, it is harvested. Yams are harvested 6 to 12 months after planting, depending on the type. When the leaves and stems start to yellow and dry out, lift the tubers. Avoid burying the ripe tubers for an excessive amount of time.

they might decay and get bitter. The largest tubers are lifted at the first harvest, which occurs after six months. Three to six months after the first crop is ready for harvest, the second crop is taken.

Yams are delivered to the nearby market to be sold. The size of the tubers affects the price of yam.

In Nigeria, How To Begin A Yam Farming Business
In Nigeria How To Begin A Yam Farming Business

The price of launching a yam farming enterprise in Nigeria.

Due to the high cost of purchasing land, the location of the farm has a significant impact on the cost of yam growing in Nigeria. Other expenses include paying workers, paying for fumigation, transporting harvested yams, paying for seeds, etc.

In general, yam farming can be started with between 300,000 and 500,000 naira, excluding the cost of the land. If you have enough farmland, you can earn a lot of money from yam growing, which is a very profitable venture.

This step-by-step manual will assist you in effectively launching a yam business in Nigeria. However, you can first speak with an agricultural professional who can provide you detailed advice about yarm farming.

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